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Risk of chlorine dioxide as emerging contaminant during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: enzyme, cardiac, and behavior effects on amphibian tadpoles
Risk of chlorine dioxide as emerging contaminant during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: enzyme, cardiac, and behavior effects on amphibian tadpoles
****!!!! The use of chlorine dioxide (ClO[2] ) increased in the last year to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection due to its use as disinfectant and therapeutic human treatments against viral infections. The absence of toxicological studies and sanitary regulation of ...
·ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Risk of chlorine dioxide as emerging contaminant during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: enzyme, cardiac, and behavior effects on amphibian tadpoles
PRIME PubMed | Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alternate drinking water disinfectants
PRIME PubMed | Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alternate drinking water disinfectants
****!!!!****!!!!**** (1982) Studies in rats revealed that ClO2 is converted to chloride (Cl-), ClO2- and ClO3-. ClO2- and ClO3- are excreted as Cl-, ClO2- and Cl-, ClO2-, ClO3-, respectively. Radioactivity was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following the administration of 36ClO2 orally, and the half-life for the elimination of 36Cl from the rat was 44 hr, corresponding to a rate constant of 0.016/hr. After 72 hr, radioactivity was highest in plasma, followed by kidney, lung, and stomach. 36Cl in plasma reached a peak at 2 hr and 1 hr after oral administration of 36ClO2- and 36ClO3-, respectively. 36Cl excretion was greatest 24 hr after the administration of 36ClO3-, but in the case of 36ClO2-, the excretion probably represented saturation of the biotransformation and excretion pathway. A low activity in packed cells compared to plasma was detected in chlorate ingestion, rather than an even distribution in chlorite treatment. Chloroform determinations in rat blood after one year indicated that chloroform was significantly higher than control in the 100 and 1000 mg/l. ClO2 groups. However, no significant values were observed in the 1 or 10 mg/l. ClO2 and ClO2 metabolites groups. ClO2 and its metabolites are eliminated from the body more rapidly than chlorine, and they do not appear to increase trihalomethane concentrations at low dosages."
·neuro.unboundmedicine.com·
PRIME PubMed | Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of alternate drinking water disinfectants
Kinetics of Cl02 and effects of Cl02, Cl02-, and Cl03- in drinking water on blood glutathione and hemolysis in rat and chicken
Kinetics of Cl02 and effects of Cl02, Cl02-, and Cl03- in drinking water on blood glutathione and hemolysis in rat and chicken
****!!!!****!!!!**** "Radioactivity was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract following the administration of (0.07 microCi) 36ClO2 orally. 36Cl in plasma reached at peak at 1 hr. The half life for the elimination of 36Cl from the rat was 44 hr, corresponding to a rate constant of 0.016 hr-1. After 72 hr radioactivity was highest in plasma, followed by kidney, lung, stomach, duodenum, ileum, liver, spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. 36Cl excretion was greatest at 24 and 48 hrs after the administration of 36 ClO2. Forty-three percent of the total initial dose was excreted at 72 hr in the urine and feces. No 36 Cl was detected in expired air throughout the 72 hr studied. ClO2, ClO2-, and ClO3- (1, 10, 100, 1000 ppm) given daily in drinking water decreased blood glutathione, decreased osmotic fragility, and changed the morphology of erythrocytes in both chicken and rat after two months. Methemoglobin was not detected throughout these studies."
·neuro.unboundmedicine.com·
Kinetics of Cl02 and effects of Cl02, Cl02-, and Cl03- in drinking water on blood glutathione and hemolysis in rat and chicken
PRIME PubMed | Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood
PRIME PubMed | Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood
"Cl02 and metabolites, chlorite (Cl0-2) and chlorate (Cl0-3) in drinking water produced decreases in rat and chicken blood GSH. The GSH dependent system was studied in rat and chicken blood after chronic treatment for 6 months with CL02 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 MG/L), Cl0-2 or Cl0-3 (10, 100 mg/l) in drinking water. There was a 60% increase in GSH reductase in the Cl02 treatment groups of rats and chickens. A similar increase was shown in rats treated with Cl0-2 but with Cl0-3 no change was observed. GSH peroxidase was without change in rat but chickens drinking 1000 mg/l Cl02 had decreased activity. Catalase was significantly higher than control in rat and chicken in the 1000 mg/l groups. However, catalase activity was decreased in rat treated with Cl0-2 and at the same time that GSH was decreased. These studies support the view that catalase is the first line of defense against the oxidative stress of Cl02 in rat and chicken erythrocytes.
·neuro.unboundmedicine.com·
PRIME PubMed | Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood
Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood. - Abstract - Europe PMC
Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood. - Abstract - Europe PMC
"Cl02 and metabolites, chlorite (Cl0-2) and chlorate (Cl0-3) in drinking water produced decreases in rat and chicken blood GSH. The GSH dependent system was studied in rat and chicken blood after chronic treatment for 6 months with CL02 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 MG/L), Cl0-2 or Cl0-3 (10, 100 mg/l) in drinking water. There was a 60% increase in GSH reductase in the Cl02 treatment groups of rats and chickens. A similar increase was shown in rats treated with Cl0-2 but with Cl0-3 no change was observed. GSH peroxidase was without change in rat but chickens drinking 1000 mg/l Cl02 had decreased activity. Catalase was significantly higher than control in rat and chicken in the 1000 mg/l groups. However, catalase activity was decreased in rat treated with Cl0-2 and at the same time that GSH was decreased. These studies support the view that catalase is the first line of defense against the oxidative stress of Cl02 in rat and chicken erythrocytes."
·europepmc.org·
Effect of chlorine dioxide and metabolites on glutathione dependent system in rat, mouse and chicken blood. - Abstract - Europe PMC
43 sent to hospital after chlorine dioxide leak in Woodland
43 sent to hospital after chlorine dioxide leak in Woodland
Forty-three employees of a Woodland cannery were treated for respiratory issues after a chlorine dioxide leak Sunday afternoon, the Woodland Fire Department said.Battalion Chief Greg Robinson, the …
·dailydemocrat.com·
43 sent to hospital after chlorine dioxide leak in Woodland
Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences as indicators of different disinfectants exposure in the heart of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walbaum)
Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences as indicators of different disinfectants exposure in the heart of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walbaum)
"Both chlorine dioxide and formalin treatment was indicated by a significant increase in the level of heart TBARS levels and carbonyl derivatives content and decreased SOD activity. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers were unchanged upon chloramine-T or CIP disinfectant exposure. Increased oxidative stress could modify antioxidant defences, principally causing increased CAT activity in the heart tissue of formalin- or ClO2−-exposed fish. The correlation between oxidative stress biomarkers and GPx activity indicates that enzymes related to glutathione metabolism were responsible to formalin or ClO2−-induced oxidative stress. "
·onlinelibrary.wiley.com·
Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defences as indicators of different disinfectants exposure in the heart of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Walbaum)
study on the sub-chronic inhalation toxicity of chlorine dioxide gas disinfectants
study on the sub-chronic inhalation toxicity of chlorine dioxide gas disinfectants
"The maximum undetected dose of chlorine dioxide gas was greater than 30.0 mg/m3,2h, and no major target organs of chlorine dioxide gas to rats with chronic inhalation toxicity were found under the experimental conditions. Conclusion: According to the results of the subchronic inhalation toxicity test of chlorine dioxide gas, the maximum undetected harmful effect dose of chlorine dioxide gas is greater than 30.0mg/m3,2h, which is extrapolated to humans with a safety factor of 100, and the safe concentration of chlorine dioxide gas that can be directly exposed to chlorine dioxide gas is obtained as 0.30mg/m3,2h per day."
·d.wanfangdata.com.cn·
study on the sub-chronic inhalation toxicity of chlorine dioxide gas disinfectants
Chlorine-dioxide: Megakaryotic hypoplasia and thrombocytopenia following drug misuse: case report
Chlorine-dioxide: Megakaryotic hypoplasia and thrombocytopenia following drug misuse: case report
**** (2021) "The man presented to the hospital with complaints of generalised bruising on the extremities, chest and back with no external bleeding. Additionally, he had back and thigh pain, anorexia and asthenia. It was reported that he had been drinking chlorine dioxide (20−30 ppm) solution daily for a month for the prevention of COVID-19"
·ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Chlorine-dioxide: Megakaryotic hypoplasia and thrombocytopenia following drug misuse: case report
PRIME PubMed | The effects of chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite on erythrocytes of A/J and C57L/J mice
PRIME PubMed | The effects of chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite on erythrocytes of A/J and C57L/J mice
Because chlorinated surface drinking water supplies have been implicated in an increased risk of cancer, alternative methods of disinfection are being proposed; chlorine dioxide is the most seriously considered. This study reports that chlorine dioxide exposure of two strains of laboratory mice (A/J and C57L/J) to 100 ppm chlorine dioxide in their drinking water for 30 days produced no changes in 11 hematological parameters measured. Chlorite (a product formed from chlorine dioxide disinfection) produced increases in MCV (mean corpuscular volume); osmotic fragility; G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity; and the number of acanthocytes at exposure to 100 ppm, but not 1.0 or 10.0 ppm. These findings are consistent with membrane damage to the red cell and, in particular, the lipid fraction. Since chlorite is formed at a rate of 50 percent of the chlorine dioxide demand, serious consideration must be given to limiting chlorite formation before chlorine dioxide is adopted as a disinfectant to replace chlorine.
·unboundmedicine.com·
PRIME PubMed | The effects of chlorine dioxide and sodium chlorite on erythrocytes of A/J and C57L/J mice
Toxicological Effects of Chlorite in the Mouse on JSTOR
Toxicological Effects of Chlorite in the Mouse on JSTOR
When exposed to a maximum level of 100 ppm chlorine dioxide in their drinking water, neither A/J or C57L/J mice exhibited any hematologic changes. Chlorite expo...
·jstor.org·
Toxicological Effects of Chlorite in the Mouse on JSTOR
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~International Dioxide, ~Erco?
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~International Dioxide, ~Erco?
"Chlorine dioxide concentration =or 0.44% w/w" "Environmental hazards: Not currently regulated by OSHA, refer to Section 12 for additional information." "OSHA defined hazards: While this material is not considered hazardous by the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200), the SDS contains valuable information critical to the safe handling and proper use of the product. The SDS should be retained and available for employees and other users of this product. " "There are no additional ingredients present which, within the current knowledge of the supplier and in the concentrations applicable, are classified as hazardous to health and hence require reporting in this section. "
·ercoworldwide.com·
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~International Dioxide, ~Erco?
Effect of Sodium [36Cl]Chlorate Dose on Total Radioactive Residues and Residues of Parent Chlorate in Beef Cattle†
Effect of Sodium [36Cl]Chlorate Dose on Total Radioactive Residues and Residues of Parent Chlorate in Beef Cattle†
"Elimination of radioactivity in urine and feces equaled 20, 33, and 48% of the total dose for the low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Chlorate and chloride were the only radioactive chlorine species present in urine; the fraction of chlorate present as a percentage of the total urine radioactivity decreased with time regardless of the dose. Chloride was the major radioactive residue present in edible tissues, comprising over 98% of the tissue radioactivity for all animals. Chlorate concentrations in edible tissues ranged from nondetectable to an average of 0.41 ppm in skeletal muscle of the high-dosed animals. No evidence for the presence of chlorite was observed in any tissue. Results of this study suggest that further development of chlorate as a preharvest food safety tool merits consideration."
·pubs.acs.org·
Effect of Sodium [36Cl]Chlorate Dose on Total Radioactive Residues and Residues of Parent Chlorate in Beef Cattle†
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~ERCO
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~ERCO
{Provides extensive details} "Chlorine dioxide irritates the nose, throat, trachea and bronchi at very low concentrations (less than 5 ppm) resulting in breathlessness, wheezing and coughing. Higher concentrations can cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, bronchial spasms and difficulty in breathing. A potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) could occur. Symptoms of pulmonary edema (chest pain and shortness of breath) can be delayed for up to 24 or 48 hours after exposure. Long-term respiratory effects (e.g. sensitivity to respiratory irritants, chronic nasal inflammation, asthma, pulmonary emphysema and spastic bronchitis) have been noted in workers accidentally exposed to unspecified concentrations for a short time"
·ercoworldwide.com·
Chlorine dioxide solution SDS ~ERCO
Antioxidant small molecules confer variable protection against oxidative damage in yeast mutants - PubMed
Antioxidant small molecules confer variable protection against oxidative damage in yeast mutants - PubMed
To assess the capacity of small molecules to function as antioxidants in pathologic conditions, a set of yeast assays utilizing strains deficient in the antioxidant machinery was applied with measurements of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and induction of the stress responsiv …"
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Antioxidant small molecules confer variable protection against oxidative damage in yeast mutants - PubMed