Chemical & Biological Dynamics

Chemical & Biological Dynamics

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Methods for treating an object with chlorine dioxide - Google Patents, published 2016
Methods for treating an object with chlorine dioxide - Google Patents, published 2016
****!!!!****!!!!**** {ICA TriNova} "method for treating an object with chlorine dioxide gas, comprising contacting the object with chlorine dioxide gas while exposing the object to less than 1000 lux of light. The disclosed method minimizes chlorine containing residue on the surface of the object. The object can be a raw agricultural commodity (RAC) such as a raw fruit or vegetable." "Residues on the walls of each jar were quantitatively recovered by washing the walls sequentially with 4-50 mL aliquots of nanopure water and combining the aliquots with additional water to bring the total volume to 250 mL. These washings were analyzed by ion chromatography for chlorate and perchlorate ions. Based on reaction profiling of these particle mixtures, the weights of the particles provided within the TYVEK sachets were adjusted so that, upon reacting, a total of 1.6 mg of ClO2 would have been produced in each jar during the 2 hour period. " "Gas Chamber Studies Show Chlorate and Perchlorate Ions can be Minimized and in the Case of Perchlorate Eliminated when Fumigation is Performed in the Substantial Absence of Light when RACs are Present" "At 120 minutes, chlorine dioxide concentrations... fell well below expected concentrations, likely due to system leaks or to chlorine dioxide reacting with the exposure chambers themselves or with the silicone sealant used on the tanks. When tomatoes were present in the treatment chambers, chlorine dioxide gas was measurable only through 30 minutes for two replicates and through 60 minutes for one replicate. These data clearly indicate that tomatoes acted as a chlorine dioxide sink, consistent with studies using radiolabel showing the propensity for chlorine dioxide consumption by biologic materials, especially those tissues with a porous surface"
·patents.google.com·
Methods for treating an object with chlorine dioxide - Google Patents, published 2016
Photodecomposition of Chlorine Dioxide
Photodecomposition of Chlorine Dioxide
****!!!!**** "The photodecomposition in solution has also been studied and appears to differ very considerably from the reaction in the gas phase."
·pubs.acs.org·
Photodecomposition of Chlorine Dioxide
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Inactivation of Beta-Lactams ~ClorDiSys
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Inactivation of Beta-Lactams ~ClorDiSys
****!!!!**** "The goal was to validate a cycle that could be used to treat a pharmaceutical manufacturer’s beta-lactam [antibiotics] manufacturing equipment for the future production of non-beta-lactam compounds"
·liebertpub.com·
Chlorine Dioxide Gas Inactivation of Beta-Lactams ~ClorDiSys
What makes Vital Oxide so special?
What makes Vital Oxide so special?
By now you might feel like you are familiar with Vital Oxide and some of its many powerful assets from destroying odors, mold, other fungi, viruses and bacteria. But what is it that makes Vital Oxide such a safe, dependable, and powerful tool? Let's take a minute and check out the science behind this powerhouse. The Science Okay, a moment of truth here. I was not very good at science. I squeaked by with Bs and Cs, but guess what? You don't have to understand science to understand the powerful el
·lastgerm.com·
What makes Vital Oxide so special?
The Science Behind Vital Oxide’s Hero Ingredient: Chlorine Dioxide
The Science Behind Vital Oxide’s Hero Ingredient: Chlorine Dioxide
We all want to use the safest and most effective products in our homes and around our families. Walk down the cleaning supplies aisle in your local supermarket and you’ll discover an enormous array of products – many of them familiar to you from advertisements. With so many choices and such aggressive promotion, it’s tough to figure out what you really need to clean your home and which products may do more harm than good. The reality is that the toxic chemicals found in most conventional cleaning products – even those that claim to be “natural” – are linked with all kinds of health concerns. For example, pine and citrus-based cleaners contain a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known as terpenes. Terpenes may also be found in other cleaning products and air fresheners that contain other essential oils for fragrance. They can react with ozone to form formaldehyde, an asthmagen and known human carcinogen. Other toxic chemicals used in common household products are linked to a shocking number of health risks like asthma, allergies, endocrine disruption, reproductive toxicity, cancer, burns, and poisonings.  You may have heard that Vital Oxide is an all-in-one EPA-registered hospital disinfectant, cleaner, sanitizer, mold and mildew remover, and allergen and odor eliminator. Lately, Vital Oxide has been making headlines all over the world because of its versatility, effectiveness, and approval by the EPA for use against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes the disease COVID-19. But is Vital Oxide safe? What are the ingredients? And what makes Vital Oxide different from other products?  We’ve got the details for you here. Vital Oxide’s Hero Ingredient: Chlorine Dioxide  Vital Oxide harnesses the power of oxygen – in the form of stabilized chlorine dioxide – to create a fast-acting, environmentally-friendly, effective broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent.  Chlorine dioxide is a versatile disinfectant that was introduced to the U.S. in the 1940s to disinfect drinking water. And while it has chlorine in its name, it’s very different from chlorine bleach. Unlike bleach, which has a harsh odor and forms trihalomethanes when mixed with water, making it extremely corrosive – chlorine dioxide breaks down into water, oxygen, and common table salt, making it much less corrosive to surfaces and more versatile in a variety of application situations.  Chlorine dioxide (CLO2) is considered an excellent bactericide, fungicide and antimicrobial agent. But how does it work? CLO2 is a strong oxidant that works by removing a single electron from other compounds during a chemical reaction. By taking electrons from microbes, the microbe’s molecular bonds weaken and the cell breaks apart. This process alters the proteins involved in their structure and decreases enzyme function, thus resulting in the death of the microbe. This attack on many proteins simultaneously prevents the microorganisms from mutating and developing resistance.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes chlorine dioxide use as a drinking water disinfectant, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Chlorine dioxide has also been used during Anthrax attacks, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, to disinfect hospitals and other healthcare environments, in food processing, and most recently to help combat SARS-CoV-2.  Safe to Use Around the Home A heavy duty odor and allergen eliminator, carpet sanitizer (awarded the Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) Seal of Approval, Vital Oxide is also effective at sanitizing carpets and removing pet odors), and a mold and mildew remover with up to six months residual effectiveness. Vital Oxide’s non-corrosive and non-irritating formula is gentle on the skin. Vital Oxide has no added fragrances, dyes, or preservatives, no skin or respiratory allergens or irritants. It has no harmful chemicals, toxic residues or fumes, and earns the lowest toxicity level that the EPA gives for pesticide (disinfectant) applications – Category 4 – which means that you don’t need to wear a mask, gloves, or any other personal protection equipment while applying it. You can even spray down your cutting board, countertop, or other food prep surface to clean and sanitize without having to rinse. Vital Oxide is NSF certified D2 (No Rinse Required) as a food contact surface sanitizer, and kills 99.999% of bacteria, including common foodborne illnesses like E. coli and Salmonella. You can also use it to safely clean and deodorize your funky yoga mat, smelly sneakers, fido’s stinky squeaky toy, bad smelling baby gear, and more, no rinsing needed. Simply spray and walk away. Safe to Use on Virtually Any Surface  Vital Oxide is non-irritating to the skin and non-corrosive to treated articles. It’s also colorless, odorless, and will not harm water-safe fabrics. Vital Oxide can be used on countertops, in the fridge, on children’s toys, on luggage, in the bathroom, on bedding and furniture, in the car, on airplanes, in classrooms and on school buses, and more. The possibilities are endless.  Vital Oxide is an Environmentally-Friendly Choice  After use, Vital Oxide’s hero ingredient, chlorine dioxide, breaks down into water, oxygen, and simple salt, making it an excellent environmental choice. And because it replaces bleach, conventional disinfectants, ammonia-based glass cleaners, deodorizers, and kitchen and bathroom cleaners, you can eliminate the need for all that extra plastic, too.  With Vital Oxide, you get powerful cleaning and disinfecting without all the harmful ingredients. It’s the only product you’ll ever need!  Learn more about the science behind our product, as well as tons of great tips on cleaning, disinfecting, and more. If you have any questions, please Contact Us or Send Us a Message on Facebook. We’re here to help.
·vitaloxide.com·
The Science Behind Vital Oxide’s Hero Ingredient: Chlorine Dioxide
The History of Chlorine Dioxide - Performacide
The History of Chlorine Dioxide - Performacide
The EPA lists PERFORMACIDE® as a registered disinfectant that meets the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) criteria for use against the Ebola virus.
·performacide.com·
The History of Chlorine Dioxide - Performacide
Chlorine Dioxide Reactions with Indoor Materials during Building Disinfection: Surface Uptake
Chlorine Dioxide Reactions with Indoor Materials during Building Disinfection: Surface Uptake
****!!!!**** The focus of this paper is on chlorine dioxide removal from air to each of 24 different indoor materials... Deposition velocities and reaction probabilities varied over approximately 2 orders of magnitude across all materials. For most materials, deposition velocity decreased significantly over a 16-h disinfection period; that is, materials became smaller sinks for chlorine dioxide with time. Four materials (office partition, ceiling tile, medium density fiberboard, and gypsum wallboard) accounted for the most short- and long-term consumption of chlorine dioxide. Deposition velocity was observed to be a strong function of chlorine dioxide inlet concentration, suggesting the potential importance of chemical reactions on or within test materials."
·pubs.acs.org·
Chlorine Dioxide Reactions with Indoor Materials during Building Disinfection: Surface Uptake
Effect of lignin structure on adsorbable organic halogens formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching | Royal Society Open Science
Effect of lignin structure on adsorbable organic halogens formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching | Royal Society Open Science
Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) are formed in pulp bleaching as a result of the reaction of residual lignin with chlorine dioxide. The natural structure of lignin is very complex and it tends to be damaged by various extraction methods. All the factors ...
·royalsocietypublishing.org·
Effect of lignin structure on adsorbable organic halogens formation in chlorine dioxide bleaching | Royal Society Open Science
Avoiding Chlorite: Chlorine and CIO2 Together Form Fewer DBPs
Avoiding Chlorite: Chlorine and CIO2 Together Form Fewer DBPs
This article discusses how dosing chlorine and chlorine dioxide concurrently provides excellent disinfection inactivation and limits chlorite formation. This was done when Aurora (Colorado) Water's 8...
·awwa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com·
Avoiding Chlorite: Chlorine and CIO2 Together Form Fewer DBPs
The Effect of Sulfur‐Based Reducing Agents and GAC Filtration on Chlorine Dioxide By‐products
The Effect of Sulfur‐Based Reducing Agents and GAC Filtration on Chlorine Dioxide By‐products
"determine the effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration and sulfur-based reducing agents on chlorite and chlorate ions in water. It is concluded that neither GAC filtration nor sulfur-based reduction is a feasible means of removing chlorine dioxide by-products."
·awwa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com·
The Effect of Sulfur‐Based Reducing Agents and GAC Filtration on Chlorine Dioxide By‐products
Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Filtration and Disinfection Requirements for Public Water Systems Using Surface Water Sources. March 1991 Edition. ~National Technical Report Library
Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Filtration and Disinfection Requirements for Public Water Systems Using Surface Water Sources. March 1991 Edition. ~National Technical Report Library
****!!!!**** {Data in tables is based on limited sources} "A review of data from Hoff (1986) indicates that the disinfection efficiency of chlorine dioxide for bacteria and viruses increases approximately 2 to 3 gold as pH increases from 7 to 9." "pg 378 Table of CT Values for Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Chlorine Dioxide in pH 6-9" "[page 379] Table of CT Values for Inactivation of Viruses by Chlorine Dioxide in pH 6-9"
·ntrl.ntis.gov·
Guidance Manual for Compliance with the Filtration and Disinfection Requirements for Public Water Systems Using Surface Water Sources. March 1991 Edition. ~National Technical Report Library
Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores ~EPA
Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores ~EPA
****!!!!****!!!!**** " Nearly all AZTD samples completely decontaminated • Greater than 6 LR for topsoil at 1 cm depth, 2 hour, both RH levels • 2 cm topsoil much more difficult to decon" "Aqueous ClO2 completely ineffective ( 0.5 LR) at most robust test conditions (4000 ppm, 2 hr contact Time, 4 spray applications)"
·19january2021snapshot.epa.gov·
Remediation of Soil Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores ~EPA
Thieme E-Journals - European Journal of Dentistry / Full Text
Thieme E-Journals - European Journal of Dentistry / Full Text
"A new disinfectant is super-oxidized water (SOW) with a wide antimicrobial effect, which contains HClO, chlorate (I) anion, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone. SOW achieves effective disinfection within a short time (5–10 minutes) comparable to sterilization processes and is safe to environment, medical personnel, and patients. The disadvantages of SOW are that it has to be produced at the site of use and the antimicrobial effect is reduced in the presence of organic substances" "Oxidizing compounds: H2O2, HClO, ClO2, and peracetic acid cause oxidation of thiol groups (̶ SH) in cysteine residues, which form disulfide bridges that determine the structure and function of proteins. Because cysteine residues are located at the active sites of many bacterial enzymes, their oxidation by oxidizing compounds leads to inactivation."
·thieme-connect.com·
Thieme E-Journals - European Journal of Dentistry / Full Text
Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System--slide presentation
Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System--slide presentation
****!!!! "Adding salt to the aqueous solution used to produce sterilant allows humidity control, which improves kill of bacterial spores" "• Indicator to show ClO2 is present: • Indicator is printed on or attached to inside of pouch • Changes color on exposure to ClO2" "Reversible indicator on outside of sterilizer bag to show when unit is too cold and should be warmed for correct functioning" "To eliminate bacterial spores, it is highly desirable to control the humidity during sterilization to 70 to 95%, preferably 90 to 95%. Adding NaCl to the NaClO2 solution lowers the humidity of the gases produced from 100% to the desired range."
·apps.dtic.mil·
Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System--slide presentation