Food Treatment

Food Treatment

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Evaluation of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide as a Sanitizer for KillingSalmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeriamonocytogenes, and Yeasts and Molds on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce
Evaluation of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide as a Sanitizer for KillingSalmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeriamonocytogenes, and Yeasts and Molds on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce
"CA TriNova, Inc. [chlorine dioxide] consisted of two compartments: one containing a gran-ular porous solid impregnated with sodium chlorite and the othercontaining a granular porous solid impregnated with acid and anacid precursor (ferric chloride" "The mixture of chemicals in three sachets was formulatedto release ClO2gas into the cabinet (31.1 liters) at concentrationsof 1.4, 2.7, and 4.1 mg/liter within 5.4 to 10.5, 10.4 to 20.0, and20.5 to 30.8 min, respectively, at 23618C. Because gas phaseconcentration of **1 mg/liter is equivalent to 362 ppmv**, an alter-native way to report the concentrations of ClO2 gas released is 507, 977, and 1,484 ppmv within 5.4 to 10.5, 10.4 to 20.0, an d20.0 to 30.8 min, respectively." "supporting the observation that increased exposure of ClO2 to organic materials resulting from break-age of cellular structures caused by cutting, slicing, or shredding offers protection against inactivation." "As with cabbage and carrot, treatment had animmediate and significant adverse affect (a50.05) on sen-sory quality. " " hypothesis that interactions between fungal propagules and the epidermis of tomatoes retard penetration of ClO2 gas" "The ef-fects of a more rapid release of ClO2gas on inactivationof pathogens and on sensory quality should also be investigated."
·watermark.silverchair.com·
Evaluation of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide as a Sanitizer for KillingSalmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeriamonocytogenes, and Yeasts and Molds on Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce
Evaluation of Hot Water, Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorine Treatments in Combination with an Edible Coating for Enhancing Safety, Quality, and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Cantaloupes - PubMed
Evaluation of Hot Water, Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorine Treatments in Combination with an Edible Coating for Enhancing Safety, Quality, and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Cantaloupes - PubMed
Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been implicated in numerous foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Commercial aqueous wash treatments are limited in their ability to inactivate Salmonella enterica. "
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Evaluation of Hot Water, Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorine Treatments in Combination with an Edible Coating for Enhancing Safety, Quality, and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Cantaloupes - PubMed
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Human Pathogens on Iceberg Lettuce
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Human Pathogens on Iceberg Lettuce
"The disinfection efficacy depends on various factors, e.g., the location of microorganisms and the organic load of the washing water." "On iceberg leaves, washing with 30 mg L−1 ClO2 pronouncedly (1 log) reduced loads of E. coli and S. enterica, while it only insignificantly (
·mdpi.com·
Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on Human Pathogens on Iceberg Lettuce
Inhibitory of grey mold on green pepper and winter jujube by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) fumigation and its mechanisms - ScienceDirect
Inhibitory of grey mold on green pepper and winter jujube by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) fumigation and its mechanisms - ScienceDirect
"leading to the loss of plasma membrane integrity, causing the cellular leakage. These data showed that ClO2 was effective for controlling grey mold caused by B. cinerea on green pepper and winter jujube, and the antifungal activity of ClO2 could be attributed to the disruption of cell membrane of the fungal pathogen."
·sciencedirect.com·
Inhibitory of grey mold on green pepper and winter jujube by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) fumigation and its mechanisms - ScienceDirect
Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment Suppresses Decay and Microbial Growth in Cold-stored Jujube Fruit
Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment Suppresses Decay and Microbial Growth in Cold-stored Jujube Fruit
ClO2 maintained the decay rate below 7.0% for up to 4 weeks of storage, whereas the decay rate of the control was approximately 20%. Moreover, the decay rate of fruit treated with 50 mg·L-1 ClO2 was maintained below 20% until the end of storage (6 weeks). In addition, 50 mg·L-1 fumigation completely prevented aerobic bacterial growth during the first 2 weeks of storage; after 6 weeks, the aerobic bacteria count in the groups treated with 30 mg·L-1 and 50 mg·L-1 ClO2 was 2.4 log colony-forming units per gram, which was 30% lower than that of the control. Total yeast and mold growth were also well controlled during storage, even with only 10 mg·L-1 of gaseous ClO2 fumigation. These data demonstrate that 30 - 50 mg·L-1 of gaseous ClO2fumigation suppressed postharvest jujube fruit decay by controlling fungal and bacterial growth on the surface"
·hst-j.org·
Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment Suppresses Decay and Microbial Growth in Cold-stored Jujube Fruit
Effects of chlorine dioxide treatment on respiration rate and ethylene synthesis of postharvest tomato fruit - ScienceDirect
Effects of chlorine dioxide treatment on respiration rate and ethylene synthesis of postharvest tomato fruit - ScienceDirect
The results showed that application of ClO2 gas was effective in reducing total respiration, cytochrome pathway respiration and the expression of LeCOX1, but no significant reduction in the activities of respiration-related enzymes was observed during storage. Fruit treated with ClO2 resulted in lower ethylene production. Furthermore, the expression of ethylene biosynthesis related genes, including LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 was reduced by the ClO2 treatment. These results indicate that ClO2 treatment might delay the ripening of tomato fruit, possibly by a mechanism involving suppression of respiration rate and ethylene biosynthesis."
·sciencedirect.com·
Effects of chlorine dioxide treatment on respiration rate and ethylene synthesis of postharvest tomato fruit - ScienceDirect
Effects of moisture content and mild heat on the ability of gaseous chlorine dioxide against Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 on almonds
Effects of moisture content and mild heat on the ability of gaseous chlorine dioxide against Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 on almonds
"ClO2 + MC (7%) + mild heat (40 °C) obtained maximum bacterial reductions on almonds. SEM images displayed bacterial cells protected by almond and coupon crevices. Surrogate E. faecium and pathogenic Salmonella were statistically (P < 0.05) similar."
·sciencedirect.com·
Effects of moisture content and mild heat on the ability of gaseous chlorine dioxide against Salmonella and Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 on almonds
INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA SPP. AND ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ON DIFFERENT FOOD COMMODITIES BY VOLATILE ANTIMICROBIALS
INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA SPP. AND ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ON DIFFERENT FOOD COMMODITIES BY VOLATILE ANTIMICROBIALS
{Excellent example data against pathogens on specific foods} "ClO2 gas treatment at 0.6 and 1.24 ppm achieved 3.0 and 6.4 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7 on green peppers, however only 3.0 log reduction on injured green pepper surface. Another study showed that ClO2 is highly effective against L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of whole produce, but not on shredded or sliced produce (94). Pao et al. (88) showed that 20 ppm chlorine dioxide in 2 s reduced more than 5 .0 log of Salmonella enterica. The same concentration required 1 min to achieve the same reduction on freshly spot-inoculated tomatoes, however this concentration after 171 min did not reduced the population significantly after drying the inoculum for 24 h at 24 ± 1 ºC. Reina et al. (93) showed that 2.8 ppm ClO2 is effective in killing planktonic cells in cooling water used to treat pickles, but had little effect on or in the fruit. Similar results were obtained by Costilow et al. (37) where 2.5 ppm was effective against microorganisms in water but not on and in cucumbers. Application of 4 mg/liter ClO2 gas (4000 ppm)to apples reduced the population of Listeria monocytogenes by 5.5 log and 3 mg/liter reduced the pathogen population by 7.4 log/5 g on green peppers. In addition to that, 1.2 mg/liter reduced E. coli O157:H7 population by 6.4 log on surface-injured green peppers compared to 1.5-1.7 log reduction by water wash. The use of 5 mg/liter (5000 ppm) chlorine dioxide gas for 1 h was significantly more effective against Salmonella spp. on the stem scar than aqueous solutions of 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite ( 2 min exposure) and 1200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (2 min exposure) (128). Treating Salmonellaspp.-inoculated tomatoes with aqueous solutions of 200 ppm chlorine, 1200 acidified sodium chlorite and 87 ppm peroxyacetic acid reduced the population ˃ 1.0 log at tomatoes stem scar and ˃ 2.0 log at puncture wounds. However, chlorine dioxide gas reduced the population to undetectable limit at the stem scar but had no apparent effect against the pathogen at puncture wounds (128)."
·getd.libs.uga.edu·
INACTIVATION OF SALMONELLA SPP. AND ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 ON DIFFERENT FOOD COMMODITIES BY VOLATILE ANTIMICROBIALS
Mucor piriformis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Mucor piriformis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
****!!!*** "Treatment of pears inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, Mucor piriformis or P. expansum with 10 mg/ml chlorine dioxide for 10 min suppressed decay, but addition of 0.5 mg/ml of chlorine dioxide to flume water did not reduce decay of inoculated fruit. Chlorine dioxide reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 on inoculated apples by only 2.5 logs at 80 mg/ml " " fungal mycelia are formed in Rhizopus- or Mucor-infected fruit stored in piles of bins or boxes in the packinghouse and leakage from decayed tissue, apart from being phytotoxic, carries inoculum that may easily infect adjacent healthy fruit by the action of pectolytic enzymes." "The disease control effect of COS has been considered to be one of the most important properties, corresponding directly to their possible biological applications... COS inhibited germination and growth of Botrytis cinerea and Mucor piriformis in strawberry fruit"
·sciencedirect.com·
Mucor piriformis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
Chlorine Dioxide Use In the Food Industry | PureLine
Chlorine Dioxide Use In the Food Industry | PureLine
{Good summary information} The food and beverage industry has embraced chlorine dioxide as the preferred method for resetting the environments and ensuring the safety of foods.
·pureline.com·
Chlorine Dioxide Use In the Food Industry | PureLine
Disinfecting agents for controlling fruit and vegetable diseases after harvest - ScienceDirect
Disinfecting agents for controlling fruit and vegetable diseases after harvest - ScienceDirect
"some of the major disinfectants available for usage today. These include chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, and electrolyzed water." "Information is given on experimental reports, practical application, phytotoxicity, residues, advantages, disadvantages and mode of action of the compounds and technologies. Special emphasis is given to vapor and gas phase applications due to their unexploited potential and to some complementary technologies that have been reported in recent years. The conclusion from the many details in this review is that disinfection is an important tool to ensure management of postharvest decay of fresh produce. In some cases, disinfection is a precondition to successful implementation of major postharvest technologies and in particular cases it can become the major technology. An important aspect arising from this review is also that some of the bad reputation of chemical disinfectants is unjustified because they leave no or non-toxic levels of residues and their environmental impact is minor in view of their potential benefits."
·sciencedirect.com·
Disinfecting agents for controlling fruit and vegetable diseases after harvest - ScienceDirect
Chlorine Dioxide for Reduction of Postharvest Pathogen Inoculum during Handling of Tree Fruits
Chlorine Dioxide for Reduction of Postharvest Pathogen Inoculum during Handling of Tree Fruits
"In vitro tests with conidial or sporangiospore suspensions of Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Mucor piriformis, and Cryptosporiopsis perennans demonstrated >99% spore mortality within 1 min when the fungi were exposed to aqueous chlorine dioxide at 3 or 5 μg · ml-1 [I think this is the same as 3 or 5 ppm]. Longer exposure times were necessary to achieve similar spore mortalities with 1 μg · ml-1. Of the fungi tested, B. cinerea and P. expansum were the least sensitive to ClO2. In comparison with the number recovered from untreated control areas, the number of filamentous fungi recovered was significantly lower in swipe tests from hard surfaces such as belts and pads in a commercial apple and pear packinghouse after treatment of surfaces with a 14.0- to 18.0-μg · ml-1 ClO2 foam formulation. Chlorine dioxide has desirable properties as a sanitizing agent for postharvest decay management when residues of postharvest fungicides are not desired or allowed."
·aem.asm.org·
Chlorine Dioxide for Reduction of Postharvest Pathogen Inoculum during Handling of Tree Fruits
Why poultry companies dip chicken in chlorine?
Why poultry companies dip chicken in chlorine?
"In Australia some poultry processors are changing from using chlorination to chlorine dioxide... Does India use chlorine or chlorine dioxide?"
·english.mathrubhumi.com·
Why poultry companies dip chicken in chlorine?
The Right Chemistry: 'Chlorinated chicken' is no reason to squawk
The Right Chemistry: 'Chlorinated chicken' is no reason to squawk
"While it is true that chlorine can react with organic compounds to form potentially toxic organochlorides, such as chloroform, the presence of these in poultry flesh is negligible. Actually, they are found in far lower concentrations than in chlorinated drinking water. Furthermore, when chlorine dioxide is the disinfectant used, as is increasingly the case, there are no organochlorides formed."
·montrealgazette.com·
The Right Chemistry: 'Chlorinated chicken' is no reason to squawk
Chlorine Dioxide Treatment of Seafoods to Reduce Bacterial Loads
Chlorine Dioxide Treatment of Seafoods to Reduce Bacterial Loads
"Various seafoods were treated with fresh chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solutions (20, 40, 100, and 200 ppm total available ClO2) in 3.5% brine for 5 min, and bacterial loads and sensory quality were evaluated"
·onlinelibrary.wiley.com·
Chlorine Dioxide Treatment of Seafoods to Reduce Bacterial Loads
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas
" Collectively, these data suggest that chlorine dioxide is chemically reduced quickly on salami surfaces and that slow-release formulations could be used for ready-to-eat sanitation provided that chlorate residues fall within limits set by regulatory organizations."
·icatrinova.com·
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas
When ready-to-eat salami was treated in a closed system with 36Cl-labeled ClO2 (5.5 mg/100 g of salami), essentially all radioactivity was deposited onto the salami. Administered 36ClO2 was converted to 36Cl-chloride ion (>97%), trace levels of chlorate (
·pubs.acs.org·
Distribution, Identification, and Quantification of Residues after Treatment of Ready-To-Eat Salami with 36Cl-Labeled or Nonlabeled Chlorine Dioxide Gas