Covid & The Immune System

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Convergent Evolution Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV Surface Envelope Glycoproteins Driven by Host Cell Surface Receptors and Lipid Rafts: Lessons for the Future
Convergent Evolution Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV Surface Envelope Glycoproteins Driven by Host Cell Surface Receptors and Lipid Rafts: Lessons for the Future
Although very different, in terms of their genomic organization, their enzymatic proteins, and their structural proteins, HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have an extraordinary evolutionary potential in common. Faced with various selection pressures that may be generated by treatments or immune responses, these RNA viruses demonstrate very high adaptive capacities, which result in the continuous emergence of variants and quasi-species. In this retrospective analysis of viral proteins, ensuring the adhesion of these viruses to the plasma membrane of host cells, we highlight many common points that suggest the convergent mechanisms of evolution. HIV and SARS-CoV-2 first recognize a lipid raft microdomain that acts as a landing strip for viral particles on the host cell surface. In the case of mucosal cells, which are the primary targets of both viruses, these microdomains are enriched in anionic glycolipids (gangliosides) forming a global electronegative field. Both viruses use lipid rafts to surf on the cell surface in search of a protein receptor able to trigger the fusion process. This implies that viral envelope proteins are both geometrically and electrically compatible to the biomolecules they select to invade host cells. In the present study, we identify the surface electrostatic potential as a critical parameter controlling the convergent evolution dynamics of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 surface envelope proteins, and we discuss the impact of this parameter on the phenotypic properties of both viruses. The virological data accumulated since the emergence of HIV in the early 1980s should help us to face present and future virus pandemics.
·mdpi.com·
Convergent Evolution Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and HIV Surface Envelope Glycoproteins Driven by Host Cell Surface Receptors and Lipid Rafts: Lessons for the Future
The immunology and immunopathology of COVID-19
The immunology and immunopathology of COVID-19
Researchers review the results of almost 2 years of COVID-19 immunology research and discuss definitive findings and remaining questions regarding our understanding of COVID-19 pathophysiology. They discuss emerging understandings of differences in immune responses seen in those with and without Long Covid syndrome, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2.
·science.org·
The immunology and immunopathology of COVID-19
Superantigens and SARS-CoV-2
Superantigens and SARS-CoV-2
Researchers discuss how SARS-CoV-2 contains at least one unique superantigen-like motif not found in any other SARS or endemic coronaviruses. Superantigens are potent antigens that can send the immune system into overdrive. They urge caution in the context of reinfection and waning immunity, and they express alarm about risks taken by governments whose policies enable widespread transmission of an airborne, potential superantigenic pathogen. Finally, they call for more clearly defined vaccination and public health policies to protect against the consequences of repeat exposure.
·mdpi.com·
Superantigens and SARS-CoV-2
Single-cell multiomics revealed the dynamics of antigen presentation, immune response and T cell activation in the COVID-19 positive and recovered individuals
Single-cell multiomics revealed the dynamics of antigen presentation, immune response and T cell activation in the COVID-19 positive and recovered individuals
Researchers found a reduced immune response in recovered Covid-19 patients, in particular a reduction in CD4 "helper" T cells, and memory B cells. They found that Covid-19 in general leads to extended stress and exhaustion of your immune system that persists after recovery.
·frontiersin.org·
Single-cell multiomics revealed the dynamics of antigen presentation, immune response and T cell activation in the COVID-19 positive and recovered individuals
SARS-CoV-2 Actively Infects And Kills Lymphoid Cells
SARS-CoV-2 Actively Infects And Kills Lymphoid Cells
A recent paper published in the journal Nature describes how SARS-CoV-2 infection induces a serious medical condition called lymphopenia by directly attacking and killing our immune T cells.
·forbes.com·
SARS-CoV-2 Actively Infects And Kills Lymphoid Cells
Transcriptional reprogramming from innate immune functions to a pro-thrombotic signature by monocytes in COVID-19
Transcriptional reprogramming from innate immune functions to a pro-thrombotic signature by monocytes in COVID-19
Researchers found that in moderate and severe cases of Covid-19, the virus can trigger a switch in white blood cells from "innate immune functions to pro-thrombotic phenotype." Basically, Covid can provoke your immune system to cause blood clots. As Wes Ely says, "Very scary stuff if you want a body & brain to get blood, food & oxygen."
·nature.com·
Transcriptional reprogramming from innate immune functions to a pro-thrombotic signature by monocytes in COVID-19
WesElyMD on Twitter
WesElyMD on Twitter
1/🧵 Our cell’s genes are rewired in MILD COVID 🧬 Stunning data in @Nature White Cells (monocytes) switch gene expression from an established innate immune profile to a pro-clotting signature in COVID. We’re immunocompromised.Let’s unpack this… https://t.co/3kByQdnJPM pic.twitter.com/7AxCNIEJDQ— WesElyMD (@WesElyMD) January 3, 2023
·twitter.com·
WesElyMD on Twitter
How COVID-19 alters the immune system
How COVID-19 alters the immune system
COVID-19 reduces the numbers and functional competence of certain types of immune cells in the blood, say researchers. This could affect responses to secondary infections.
·sciencedaily.com·
How COVID-19 alters the immune system
Long-term perturbation of the peripheral immune system months after SARS-CoV-2 infection
Long-term perturbation of the peripheral immune system months after SARS-CoV-2 infection
Researchers found significant differences in multiple innate types of immune cells in Long Covid patients, including natural killer cells and various types of T Cells. The differences lasted for at least 6 months. Long Covid patients often show signs of immune system disruption and dysregulation.
·bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com·
Long-term perturbation of the peripheral immune system months after SARS-CoV-2 infection
Depletion and Dysfunction of Dendritic Cells: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Depletion and Dysfunction of Dendritic Cells: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Researchers found that Covid-19 reduces your number of dendritic cells, which they describe as "a catastrophe for the immune system" that lasts "for several months after SARS-CoV 2 infection." Abnormal dendritic cell counts can persist for 7 months or longer. These cells are important in fighting off other pathogens, including RSV.
·frontiersin.org·
Depletion and Dysfunction of Dendritic Cells: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Distinguishing features of Long COVID identified through immune profiling
Distinguishing features of Long COVID identified through immune profiling
Researchers found that Covid-19 patients show long-term damage to several types of immune cells, including memory CD4 T cells, B cells, leukocytes, and monocytes. Overall, Covid-19 can exhaust your immune system for a year or longer.
·medrxiv.org·
Distinguishing features of Long COVID identified through immune profiling
SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein suppresses CTL-mediated killing by inhibiting immune synapse assembly
SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein suppresses CTL-mediated killing by inhibiting immune synapse assembly
Researchers found that Covid can disable Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which play a critical role in your immune system's ability to right off viruses and bacteria, as well as tumors. They say, "this mechanism could contribute to the failure of the immune system to control SARS-CoV-2 infection.
·biorxiv.org·
SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein suppresses CTL-mediated killing by inhibiting immune synapse assembly
Defective antifungal immunity in patients with COVID-19
Defective antifungal immunity in patients with COVID-19
Researchers show that Covid-19 causes dysregulation of the immune system through functional exhaustion of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells. This long-term dysregulation makes patients more vulnerable to a range of fungal infections. They conclude the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the at-risk population for such infections. Even if the incidence of IFD is relatively low, the size of this new at-risk population will result in a substantial increase in the overall, annual number of invasive fungal disease (IFD) cases.
·frontiersin.org·
Defective antifungal immunity in patients with COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism
Researchers found that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism. In short, Covid-19 impairs your ability to fight off infections. Even recovered patients showed a lower percentage of memory B cells compared to healthy patients.
·nature.com·
SARS-CoV-2 infection causes immunodeficiency in recovered patients by downregulating CD19 expression in B cells via enhancing B-cell metabolism
AIDS and COVID-19 are two diseases separated by a common lymphocytopenia
AIDS and COVID-19 are two diseases separated by a common lymphocytopenia
Researchers found that Covid-19 reduces B cells on par with HIV, and it does even more damage to T cells than HIV. Compared to HIV, Covid-19 also causes more damage to CD4+ and CD8+ (Cytotoxic lymphocytes) cell counts, and even natural killer cells. Overall, the evidence shows that Covid-19 is at least as dangerous as HIV, and it's likely more severe.
·researchsquare.com·
AIDS and COVID-19 are two diseases separated by a common lymphocytopenia
Dr. Jeff Gilchrist on Twitter
Dr. Jeff Gilchrist on Twitter
What is going on with our immune cells after COVID-19 infection?This thread will explore some of the impacts of COVID infection on our immune system even after people are recovered including:- Missing naive T-cells- Exhausted T-cells- Loss of B-cell maturation🧵1/ pic.twitter.com/z8Y0ziD6gf— Dr. Jeff Gilchrist (@jeffgilchrist) December 22, 2022
·twitter.com·
Dr. Jeff Gilchrist on Twitter
Covid-19 may attack immune system like HIV, doctors fear
Covid-19 may attack immune system like HIV, doctors fear
Researchers in China and the US find that the virus that causes Covid-19 can destroy the T cells that are supposed to protect the body from harmful invaders.
·scmp.com·
Covid-19 may attack immune system like HIV, doctors fear