Hand Washing

Hand Washing

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Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients
Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients
****!!!!**** "Our clinical study showed that EBD [ethanol-based disinfectants] effectiveness against IAV [influenza A virus] in mucus was extremely reduced compared to IAV in saline. IAV in mucus remained active despite 120 s of AHR; however, IAV in saline was completely inactivated within 30 s. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the time required for the ethanol concentration to reach an IAV inactivation level and thus for EBDs to completely inactivate IAV was approximately eight times longer in mucus than in saline. On the other hand, AHR inactivated IAV in mucus within 30 s when the mucus dried completely because the hydrogel characteristics were lost. Additionally, AHW [antiseptic hand washing] rapidly inactivated IAV. Until infectious mucus has completely dried, infectious IAV can remain on the hands and fingers, even after appropriate AHR [antiseptic hand rubbing] using EBD, thereby increasing the risk of IAV transmission. We clarified the ineffectiveness of EBD use against IAV in infectious mucus." "IMPORTANCE Antiseptic hand rubbing (AHR) and antiseptic hand washing (AHW) are important to prevent the spread of influenza A virus (IAV). This study elucidated the situations/mechanisms underlying the reduced efficacy of AHR against infectious mucus derived from IAV-infected individuals and indicated the weaknesses of the current hand hygiene regimens. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the efficacy of AHR using ethanol-based disinfectant against mucus is greatly reduced until infectious mucus adhering to the hands/fingers has completely dried. If there is insufficient time before treating the next patient (i.e., if the infectious mucus is not completely dry), medical staff should be aware that effectiveness of AHR is reduced. Since AHW is effective against both dry and nondry infectious mucus, AHW should be adopted to compensate for these weaknesses of AHR."
·msphere.asm.org·
Situations Leading to Reduced Effectiveness of Current Hand Hygiene against Infectious Mucus from Influenza Virus-Infected Patients
The effect of disinfectant ingredients on teat skin bacteria associated with mastitis in Irish dairy herds - PubMed
The effect of disinfectant ingredients on teat skin bacteria associated with mastitis in Irish dairy herds - PubMed
"The ingredient group, chlorine dioxide, resulted in comparable reductions to the iodine group for streptococcal isolates. The ingredient group, iodine combined with lactic acid, resulted in the greatest reduction of staphylococcal isolates. When observing products individually, a product containing 1.6% w/w lactic acid combined with hydrogen peroxide was the most effective at reducing streptococcal isolates on the teat skin, whereas a product containing lactic acid combined with 0.6% w/w chlorhexidine was the most effective against staphylococcal isolates." "...some teat disinfectant products achieve a higher reduction in bacterial levels against different specific bacterial groups on teat skin than other products. Therefore, when choosing a teat disinfectant product, the bacteria in the dairy herds' environment should be considered."
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
The effect of disinfectant ingredients on teat skin bacteria associated with mastitis in Irish dairy herds - PubMed
Association between microbial water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and childhood diarrhea in Kersa and Omo Nada districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia
Association between microbial water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and childhood diarrhea in Kersa and Omo Nada districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia
We conclude that the main sources of drinking water, hand washing before water drawing from a storage container, domestic waste disposal place and use of soap for hand washing were the most important factors for the prevention of childhood diarrhea."
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Association between microbial water quality, sanitation and hygiene practices and childhood diarrhea in Kersa and Omo Nada districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia
US20080067470A1 - Methods and Solid Compositions for Generating Soapy and Non-Soapy Aqueous Solutions Containing Free Chlorine Dioxide - Google Patents
US20080067470A1 - Methods and Solid Compositions for Generating Soapy and Non-Soapy Aqueous Solutions Containing Free Chlorine Dioxide - Google Patents
Patent for Hand soap with chlorine dioxide. Co-inventor John Thangaraj. "a relatively high yield of chlorine dioxide is obtained from a solid composition that has a relatively greater amount of acid and a relatively lesser amount of alkali chlorite salt. Conversely, a relatively low yield of chlorine dioxide is obtained from a solid composition that has a relatively lesser amount of acid and a relatively greater amount of alkali chlorite salt. For example, a solid composition comprising five (5) weight percent of sodium chlorite and forty (40) weight percent of acid will generate far more chlorine dioxide than a solid composition comprising seventy (70) weight percent of sodium chlorite and twenty (20) weight percent of acid. " "Coloring agents, dyes and fragrances are also not recommended for use in the solid compositions disclosed herein because they rapidly react with chlorine dioxide"
·patents.google.com·
US20080067470A1 - Methods and Solid Compositions for Generating Soapy and Non-Soapy Aqueous Solutions Containing Free Chlorine Dioxide - Google Patents
FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps | FDA
FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps | FDA
Sept 2016. Companies will no longer be able to market antibacterial washes with these 19 [although a few were granted deferred rulings] ingredients because manufacturers did not demonstrate that the ingredients are both safe for long-term daily use and more effective than plain soap and water in preventing illness and the spread of certain infections.
·fda.gov·
FDA issues final rule on safety and effectiveness of antibacterial soaps | FDA
Disposable Wipes | FDA
Disposable Wipes | FDA
Disposable wipes are made for baby care, hand washing, feminine and other personal cleansing, removing makeup, and applying products such as deodorants and sunless tanners, among other uses. Many wipes, but not all, are regulated as cosmetics.
·fda.gov·
Disposable Wipes | FDA
Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism | Semantic Scholar
Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism | Semantic Scholar
***A 10-week, open-label, crossover study was performed on 420 elementary school-age children. Students were given a brief orientation immediately prior to the start of the study on the relationship of germs, illness, and hand washing. Each student in the treatment group then received the test product in individual bottles, with instructions to apply one to two ***sprays to the hands*** after coming into the classroom, before eating, and after using the restroom, in addition to their normal hand washing with soap and water... After 4 weeks of treatment and a 2-week wash-out period, the control and experimental groups were reversed. Data gathered on absenteeism were classified as gastrointestinal or respiratory related and normalized for nonillness-related absenteeism and school holidays. ** RESULTS: Compared to the hand washing-only control group, students using CleanHands were found to have 41.9% fewer illness-related absence days, representing a 28.9% and a 49.7% drop in gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. Likewise, absence incidence decreased by 31.7%, consisting of a 44.2% and 50.2% decrease in incidence of gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively.
·fau.edu·
Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism | Semantic Scholar
FDA requests additional information to address data gaps for consumer hand sanitizers
FDA requests additional information to address data gaps for consumer hand sanitizers
June 2016. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today issued a proposed rule requesting additional scientific data to support the safety and effectiveness of certain active ingredients used in topical consumer antiseptic rubs (including hand sanitizers) marketed over-the-counter (OTC). The FDA’s request for more data is intended to help the agency ensure that regular use of these products does not present unknown safety and efficacy concerns, and does not mean the FDA believes these products are ineffective or unsafe.
·www.fda.gov·
FDA requests additional information to address data gaps for consumer hand sanitizers
Scotmas Hand Gel | Bulk | Scotmas
Scotmas Hand Gel | Bulk | Scotmas
Scotmas Hand Gel is a powerful hand gel which kills a wide range of bacteria, viruses and spores without the need for water. Not alcohol based and will not dry the skin or cause chafing.
·scotmas.com·
Scotmas Hand Gel | Bulk | Scotmas
Comparative studies of hand disinfection and handwashing procedures as tested by pupils in intervention programs - PubMed
Comparative studies of hand disinfection and handwashing procedures as tested by pupils in intervention programs - PubMed
Intervention with mandatory HW may have a lasting pedagogical effect in reducing absenteeism because of infectious illness when exposed to role models. HD could be effective in reducing absenteeism because of infectious illness and a well-placed supplement to HW.
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Comparative studies of hand disinfection and handwashing procedures as tested by pupils in intervention programs - PubMed
Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children | Semantic Scholar
Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children | Semantic Scholar
Elementary school-age children are particularly vulnerable to infections. While handwashing is the best method of preventing infections, many elementary schools are housed in buildings that have barriers to effective hand hygiene. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in reducing absenteeism secondary to infectious illness. Two-hundred and fifty-three elementary school children were randomized by classroom into an experimental or control group. With a crossover design, all children participated in both groups, with a one-week washout period between phases. A 45-minute “Germ Unit” was taught to all children as they started the experimental phase and a standard unit on hand hygiene was taught as they started the control phase. Sixty-nine children were absent due to illness while in the control group. Thirty-nine children became ill while in the experimental group. Alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing was shown to be effective in reducing absenteeism due to infectious illness by 43%.
·semanticscholar.org·
Healthy Hands: Use of Alcohol Gel as an Adjunct to Handwashing in Elementary School Children | Semantic Scholar
Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection - PubMed
Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection - PubMed
{Also links to other articles of interest} "a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol" "Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely u …
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection - PubMed
A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children - PubMed
A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children - PubMed
The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school …
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children - PubMed
Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash - PubMed
Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash - PubMed
This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was c …
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash - PubMed
An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections - PubMed
An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections - PubMed
Handwashing practices are persistently suboptimal among healthcare professionals and are also stubbornly resistant to change. The purpose of this quasi-experimental intervention trial was to assess the impact of an intervention to change organizational culture on frequency of staff handwashing (as m …
·pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov·
An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections - PubMed
Germ-killing gel, soap, toothpaste & applicators
Germ-killing gel, soap, toothpaste & applicators
[Glycerin reacts w/chlorine dioxide. Long contact needed for effectiveness against fungus.] Compositions include a first material containing sodium chlorite and a second material containing lactic acid in sufficient amount to lower the pH of the aqueous media to less than about seven.
·patents.google.com·
Germ-killing gel, soap, toothpaste & applicators